Current Issue:  Vol. 17, Issue 1 (2018)

The Journal of Clinical Chiropractic Pediatrics (JCCP) is the official peer-reviewed journal of the ICA Council on Chiropractic Pediatrics. It is committed to publishing research, scientific and professional papers, literature reviews, case reports and clinical commentaries for chiropractors and other health care professionals interested in the treatment of the pregnant, postpartum and pediatric patient. Through the publication of these papers and the dissemination of this information, the JCCP seeks to encourage professional dialogue and awareness about chiropractic pediatric care to help enhance patient care and improve patient outcomes.

Editors: Sharon A. Vallone, DC, DICCP, FICCP, Cheryl Hawk, DC, PhD.

We are hopeful that this venue will provide field clinicians interested in maternal health and pediatric chiropractic with current research, case reports and clinical commentary that they will find both useful and informative.  We invite you to submit your own research or scientific writing for consideration for publication in this journal.


Evidence-based case reports

By Cheryl Hawk, DC, PhD, CHES

Evidence-based practice (EBP) has become a standard in all health care professions. Its purpose is to improve clinical practice by incorporating the best scientific evidence available into the process of patient care, in which the patient’s welfare, values and preferences and the clinician’s judgment are equally important components of EBP.

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Improvement in concussion symptoms of headache, poor concentration and photophobia in a 13-year-old male receiving chiropractic care: A case report

By Bronwyn B. Hunt, BHK, BChiro, Kelly Holt, BSc, BChiro, PGDip, PhD and Alice Cade, BSc, BChiro, DICCP

Objective: The following report discusses improved concussion symptoms (headache, low concentration and photophobia) in a 13-year-old male, while receiving chiropractic care. Methods: An electronic search was conducted in May 2017 using the following scientific journal databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, Elsevier, ChiroACCESS, and ScienceDirect. Clinical Features: An adolescent male suffering from concussion symptoms after a traumatic axial impact to his head was presented by his mother to the chiropractic office in Auckland, New Zealand. Intervention and outcome: Following a thorough history and examination, the patient received two chiropractic visits per week, with reevaluation on the eighth visit. He was assessed for vertebral subluxations using upper cervical specific and a functional neurology approach. Care provided included upper cervical specific, full spine diversified and Gonstead chiropractic adjustments only, based on the practitioner’s palpatory and clinical expertise. Spinal levels adjusted were C1-2, C6, T1-6/7, and ilium. Marked improvements were noted; 80% overall improvement, and improvements in concentration, photophobia and headache pain levels. Conclusion: This case illustrates how concussion symptoms, specifically headaches, concentration, and photophobia may improve in patients receiving chiropractic care. Further clinical research is warranted to investigate the efficacy of subluxation based chiropractic care in relation to the improvement of concussion symptoms.

Keywords: chiropractic, adjustment, subluxation, concussion, brain injury, vision disturbance, headache, pediatric, case report

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Excessively crying babies: are they all the same? Evidence-based case report

By Kiara Rina Defrancq, MChiro

A case report of a five-month-old infant suffering from infantile colic investigated different etiologies of cries and the application and efficacy of chiropractic management. Normalization of crying behavior was noted after a short trial of chiropractic therapy.

Keywords: pediatrics, colic, infantile, chiropractic, cry babies.

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Infant demographic profile and parent report of treatment outcomes at a chiropractic clinic in the UK:
an observational study

By Johanna M. Jaskulski, MChiro and Joyce E. Miller, BS, DC, PhD

Background: Children, particularly infants, commonly present to chiropractors. Few studies have concentrated on the demographic profile of infants as well as clinical changes reported by parents of infants under chiropractic care. Objectives: To identify the demographic profile of infants presenting to a chiropractic clinic and to investigate any change of infant symptoms and maternal feelings following an episode of chiropractic care. Setting: This health care observation study was performed at a chiropractic teaching clinic on the south coast of England. Subjects/Patients: The study included all mother-infant dyads who presented to the clinic between August 2011 and June 2015 and could read and write English and who consented to complete the forms. Exclusion criteria were mothers of infants older than one year of age at presentation. Methods: All mothers were asked to complete two questionnaires at the initial visit and two follow-up questionnaires at discharge. Data collected were sociodemographic characteristics along with questions asking for graded responses regarding the daily amount of irritable behavior in their child, level of distress the mother feels with her child’s behavior, restfulness of infant sleep during the week and difficulty to console the child when crying as well as to the clinical experience provided. Additionally, the validated Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used as a report of the mother’s feelings. Results: 413 mothers completed the intake questionnaires. 197 (48%) mothers completed the discharge questionnaires. At intake, 50.3% (n=182) of the patients were four weeks of age or younger. The presenting complaint appeared before the age of two weeks in 79.1% (n=161) of the cases. 30.2% (n=160) presented with colic/crying and 22.9% (n=121) with a feeding related complaint. The modal length of an episode of care was two weeks. Over the course of treatment, average maternal distress levels reduced by 48%. Mean amount of irritability reduced by 31%; mean restfulness of sleep improved by 27% and mean difficulty to console reduced by 38% in the infant. The median EPDS score dropped by 50% over the time of care. 96.3% of parents rated 8-10 satisfaction with care on a scale of 1-10. Conclusion: Infants who presented to the chiropractic clinic showed improvement of symptoms by parental report and parents were very satisfied with treatment. Additionally, lowered levels of distress and lowered EPDS scores were reported at the end of treatment. However, this study was not randomized or controlled, so that the therapeutic effect of chiropractic care of the common complaints of infant crying and sleep disorders cannot be generally accepted until higher level studies are done. However, maternal reports of infant health have been found credible.

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Improvement in motor developmental delay in a 15-month old male following chiropractic care to correct vertebral subluxation:
A case report

By Janette McCormick, BSc(Chiro), DICCP and David G. Russell, BSc(Psych), BSc(Chiro), Cert TT

Objective: To chronicle the improvements in a 15-month-old male presenting with motor developmental delay following chiropractic care for the correction of vertebral subluxation. Methods: Online review of the literature on motor development delay and chiropractic was performed using The Index to Chiropractic Literature, PubMed and Google Scholar. Search terms “motor development delay”, “children” “chiropractic” and “spinal manipulation” were used. Clinical features: A 15-month-old male with motor developmental delay presented for chiropractic care. He was able to sit unassisted, walk assisted, but could not crawl (creep) in any way, pull himself up to stand, stand alone, or walk alone. Intervention and outcome: The child received full spine chiropractic care for 10 visits over 16 weeks using Diversified technique (Activator™ instrument assisted) for the correction of vertebral subluxation. Throughout the chiropractic care the child developed the ability to crawl on hands and knees, pull himself up to stand, stand alone, and began to walk unassisted. Conclusion: A course of chiropractic care using Diversified technique for the correction of vertebral subluxation was associated with improvements in the child’s presenting motor development delay.

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Positive chiropractic treatment outcome of chronic constipation in a 2-year-old male: a case report

By Lucy E. Thomas and Maria C. Browning, BSc, DC, MSc (Chiro Paeds), Cert Med

This case report discusses the chiropractic treatment outcome of a 2-year-old male patient suffering from idiopathic constipation and problems sleeping. The patient was treated with manual manipulation techniques. After four treatments, the frequency of bowel movements increased from once every other day to twice a day and use of medication decreased. Sleep quality also improved. As a result of the improvements noted with this intervention, a musculoskeletal mechanism for the development and persistence of constipation in children has been proposed. This case report highlights the need for high quality research on the effect of spinal manipulation in the treatment of constipation in the pediatric population to provide a potential alternative option to medical treatment or co-management of constipation.

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An electronic parent reported infant outcome measure in chiropractic clinics: a feasibility study

By Heather Anne Hanson DC, MSc and Joyce Elaine Miller BS, DC, PhD

Background: The United Kingdom Infant Questionnaire (UKIQ) is a validated and reliable parent reported outcome measure based on common public health issues and presenting complaints of infancy. The UKIQ is proposed as a pragmatic tool for research purposes and an electronic version might be advantageous for large-scale data collection in chiropractic clinics. Study objectives: The primary objective of this study was to test the feasibility of an electronic version of an infant outcomes instrument. To this end, feasibility benchmarks were set based on technical performance and acceptance of the tool by its users, chiropractic offices and mothers. Materials and methods: In this prospective, multi-center observational study, mothers of infants (0-12 months) were asked to complete the electronic UKIQ at initial presentation and at follow-up in chiropractic clinics in the United Kingdom. Technical issues encountered and rates of non-consent were tracked during the study period. Feasibility benchmarks included the following: recruitment of four participating clinics, a minimum of 70% maternal consent to participation, 80% completeness of data, 80% response from mothers that the questionnaire was “easy to use” and a follow-up rate of 50%. Participating chiropractors and receptionists were asked for feedback and ratings of their experience with the tool. Additionally, clinics who showed interest in participating but did not participate were asked to provide feedback in order to elucidate barriers to implementation. Results: During the testing period, 100 intake and 46 follow-up forms were completed. All feasibility benchmarks were achieved, except for follow-up rate (46%) and lower than anticipated participation of recruited clinics (n=2). No technical difficulties prevented mothers from completing the form and collected data had a high rate of completeness with <0.03% missing data for standard questions and no undecipherable answers. No incidents of maternal non-consent occurred and 98.9% of mothers found the tool easy to use. Clinicians and receptionists rated their experience with the tool highly (mean 5/5 for clinician perception of clinical utility and likelihood of continued use and mean 4.5/5 for receptionist’s ease of administering and 5/5 for receptionist perception of willingness of mothers to complete and ease with which mothers completed the questionnaire). Conclusions: This tool is technically capable of large-scale data collection and well-accepted by users. However, implementation of the instrument in private chiropractic clinics was lower than anticipated. Future research must investigate methods to improve uptake of key outcomes instruments in chiropractic practices.

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Journal Abstracts

Association between maternal intake of n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio during pregnancy and infant neurodevelopment at 6 months of age: results of the MOCEH cohort study.

Nutr J 2017 16:23

Kim H1, Kim H1, Lee E2, Kim Y3, Ha EH4, Chang N5.

Full text can be retrieved at:

Spinal Manipulative Therapy for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Systematic Review.

J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2017 Jul - Aug;40(6):452-458. doi: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2017.03.009.

Théroux J, Stomski N, Losco CD, Khadra C, Labelle H, Le May S.

Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

PMID: 28822477; DOI: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2017.03.009

Breastfeeding in Infancy Is Associated with Body Mass Index in Adolescence: A Retrospective Cohort Study Comparing American Indians/Alaska Natives and Non-Hispanic Whites.

J Acad Nutr Diet. 2017 Jul;117(7):1049-1056. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2016.11.013. Epub 2017 Jan 10.

Zamora-Kapoor A, Omidpanah A, Nelson LA, Kuo AA, Harris R, Buchwald DS.

Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID: 28082060; PMCID: PMC5586593 [Available on 2018-07-01]

DOI: 10.1016/j.jand.2016.11.013

Back Pain Prevalence Is Associated With Curve-type and Severity in Adolescents With Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Cross-sectional Study.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2017 Aug 1;42(15):E914-E919. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000001986.

Théroux J, Le May S, Hebert JJ, Labelle H.

PMID: 27870807; DOI: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000001986

Infant feeding and growth trajectory patterns in childhood and body composition in young adulthood.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Aug;106(2):568-580. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.140962. Epub 2017 Jun 28.

Rzehak P, Oddy WH, Mearin ML, Grote V, Mori TA, Szajewska H, Shamir R, Koletzko S, Weber M, Beilin LJ, Huang RC Koletzko B; WP working group of the Early Nutrition Project.

PMID: 28659295; DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.116.140962 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Free full text: Accessed 10/9/2017

Elbow Injuries in Pediatric Overhead Athletes.

AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2017 Oct;209(4):849-859. doi: 10.2214/AJR.17.17861. Epub 2017 Aug 10.

Wong TT, Lin DJ, Ayyala RS, Kazam JK.

PMID: 28796550; DOI: 10.2214/AJR.17.17861

Beverage Consumption Patterns at Age 13 to 17 Years Are Associated with Weight, Height, and Body Mass Index at Age 17 Years.

J Acad Nutr Diet. 2017 May;117(5):698-706. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2017.01.010. Epub 2017 Mar 2.

Marshall TA, Van Buren JM, Warren JJ, Cavanaugh JE, Levy SM.

Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID: 28259744; PMCID: PMC5412711 [Available on 2018-05-01]

DOI: 10.1016/j.jand.2017.01.010 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

The risk associated with spinal manipulation: an overview of reviews.

Syst Rev. 2017 Mar 24;6(1):64. doi: 10.1186/s13643-017-0458-y.

Nielsen SM, Tarp S, Christensen R, Bliddal H, Klokker L, Henriksen M.


PMID: 28340595; PMCID: PMC5366149

DOI: 10.1186/s13643-017-0458-y

Full text accessed at:

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